Using Sources Correctly

Your assignment must be your own independent work. You may use other people’s material only as sources of information about your topic and to support and illustrate your line of reasoning. Below is an introduction to the use of sources:

Reference

•    A reference (that is, a reference to sources) consists of information about the source from which something has been retrieved, for example a book, article or website. In references to printed text you must also include the page number. (References to older texts should also include the chapter.)
•    Reference (to a book): Two-thirds of Pompeii has now been excavated (Berry, 2007, p. 41).

 

Paraphrase

•    A paraphrase is a free rendering (in your own words) of something another author has written or said. A paraphrase should not be enclosed in quotation marks and should not exceed two to three sentences. A reference must be included.

 

Quotation 

•    A quotation is a literal repetition/word-for-word repetition of something that another author has written or said. If the quotation is less than three lines of text, it must be enclosed in quotation marks. If it is longer, it should be entered as a separate, indented paragraph. References must be given for both short and long quotations.
•    Short quotation (from a website): “came to a permanent standstill” (Pompeionline, 2012)
•    Long quotation (from an old text) with reference:  
 
The table piled not with shellfish or fish, but with huge joints of tainted meat; slatternly slaves do the waiting, some even old men; cook and hall-porter are one; neither breadmaker nor wine-cellar on the premises; the bread from a bakehouse, the wine from a tavern. (Cicero, Against Piso, ch. 67) 
List of references 
•    A list of references (otherwise  referred to as a bibliography) must be included at the end of your essay. Each reference states the name of the author, year of publication, title of the work, place of publication and date of retrieval (for webpages).

 

List of references

Beard, M. (2009). The Life of a Roman Town. London: Profile Books. (First issued in 2008 with the title The Fires of Vesuvius: Pompeii Lost and Found.) 
Berry, J. (2007). The Complete Pompeii. London: Thames & Hudson. 
Cicero (1931). The Speeches. With an English translation by N. H. Watts, B.A. London: William Heinemann Ltd.  
Pompeionline (2012). Pompeii. Retrieved 7 April 2015 from www.pompeionline.net/pompeii/. 
IF YOU ARE IN DOUBT OR WANT FURTHER INFORMATION 
•    Visit the website Søk og skriv (http://sokogskriv.no/en/sources-and-references), which provides a full introduction to referencing and reference styles. Remember to enter references in a consistent manner throughout your essay. (The examples in this introduction use the reference style APA 6th).
•    Search for information in Fronter.
•    Ask your course or seminar teacher.

 

Text Example

The text example below show you how to use references, paraphrase and quotations in a text.

Pompeii is the name of the small Roman town that was buried in dust and ashes by an eruption of the volcano Vesuvius in 79 CE, and thus “came to a permanent standstill” (Pompeionline, 2012). Systematic excavations began in 1748 (Berry, 2007, p. 40), and since then the town has been a source of knowledge, not least about the daily life of people in a small Roman settlement. 
        It is a well-established fact that Roman society was marked by class differences, and this is confirmed in Pompeii. More than 2500 examples of election posters have been found. Certain names recur, and this indicates that the town’s political life was dominated by a handful of families. Another notable feature is that the slogans accompanying the names are of the type “he is a good man” (Beard, 2009, pp. 188–195). When seeking political office in Pompeii, political programme was hence less important than family background and reputation.    
People differed in rank in other ways as well: in Pompeii, only large houses were constructed with a kitchen of their own, and there are numerous murals showing banqueting scenes (Beard, 2009, p. 94, p. 218). This indicates that being able to prepare and eat meals at home was a sign of prosperity, while having to eat in taverns and inns was the usual practice for many, a finding which is supported by ancient texts. One example is an invective (a diatribe) by the Roman orator Cicero, in which he points out that his rival Piso is not living in accordance with his social station:
the table piled not with shellfish or fish, but with huge joints of tainted meat; slatternly slaves do the waiting, some even old men; cook and hall-porter are one; neither breadmaker nor wine-cellar on the premises; the bread from a bakehouse, the wine from a tavern. (Cicero, Against Piso, ch. 67) 

But the findings in Pompeii also give rise to other questions. How was the traffic in a small Roman town organized? The streets were narrow, but supplies of commodities would nevertheless have had to be brought in. Unfortunately, no street or road signs have been preserved. On the other hand, the kerbstones on certain corners appear to have been worn into specific patterns. This has been taken as evidence that these were one-way streets, and that the direction of travel had been established by custom, rather than by signage (Beard, 2009, pp. 89–90).
Two-thirds of Pompeii has now been excavated (Berry, 2007, p. 41). The town is open to visitors and constitutes an essential source of knowledge about daily life in Roman times.

List of references:

Beard, M. (2009). The Life of a Roman Town. London: Profile Books. (First issued in 2008 with the title The Fires of Vesuvius: Pompeii Lost and Found.) Berry, J. (2007). The Complete Pompeii. London: Thames & Hudson. Cicero (1931). The Speeches. With an English translation by N. H. Watts, B.A. London: William Heinemann Ltd. Pompeionline (2012). Pompeii. Retrieved 7 April 2015 from www.pompeionline.net/pompeii/.

 

IF YOU ARE IN DOUBT OR WANT FURTHER INFORMATION

• Visit the website Søk og skriv (http://sokogskriv.no/en/sources-and-references), which provides a full introduction to referencing and reference styles. Remember to enter references in a consistent manner throughout your essay. (The examples in this introduction use the reference style APA 6th). • Search for information in Fronter. • Ask your course or seminar teacher.

Published Jan. 12, 2016 1:54 PM