Research topic: The history of antisemitism
In the 1870s, the arrival of "the Jewish question" on the political agendas of a number of European countries gave rise to what came to be termed "modern antisemitism".
Concealed behind "the Jewish question" was a critique of a range of highly diverse phenomena: democracy, liberalism, capitalism, socialism, modernity, orthodox, as well as a critique of anything viewed as old-fashioned, treacherous or unclean. Jews' civil rights were to be limited or rescinded. This was justified on the basis of pseudo-scientific racial theories, fear of competition, xenophobia, nationalism etc. "The Jew" was construed as a concept and Jews were excluded from nations' self-identities.
Antisemitism in practice took many different forms - everything from publications, the formation of political parties and official discrimination to boycotts and violent attacks. After World War One, antisemitism became more radical and finally evolved into its most extreme form: the attempt by German National Socialists to solve "the Jewish question" by means of the systematic destruction of "the Jewish race" (the Holocaust).