Research topic: Nazism and Fascism
Fascism and Nazism are related totalitarian ideologies which sprang up in Europe in the period after the First World War.
Fascism arose in Italy in 1919 with Benito Mussolini as its leader. Fascism was anti-communist, anti-democratic and anti-liberal. It was also strongly collectivist and glorified violence. It wanted to create a close national community in Italy, where an all-powerful state could intervene everywhere in peoples’ lives. After the “March on Rome” in 1922 and the murder of the leader of the Italian Socialist Party, Giacomo Matteotti in 1924, Mussolini ruled Italy as a dictator until 1943.
Nazism (National Socialism) sprang up in Germany parallel with Mussolini’s fascism. Under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, the Nazis took power in Germany in 1933. Like Fascism, Nazism was anti-communist, anti-democratic, anti-liberal, collectivist and a glorification of violence. In addition, Nazism was founded on a racial-biological perception in which people were divided into races on the basis of different qualities and different worth. Nazism was also extremely anti-Semitic. The genocide of the Jews during the Second World War was the ultimate consequence of Nazism’s anti-Semitism.
After the Second World War, Fascism and Nazism were discredited, but the ideologies still hold appeal among neo-Fascist and neo-Nazi groups.