Interaction Between Early Buddhists and Other Śramaṇas: an Analysis of the Representation of titthiyas (Heretics) in the Pāli Vinaya
It is well-known that the narratives of the Pāli Vinaya (the Buddhist monastic code of the Theravādins) are developed around strong structural patterns. In the introductory stories to the monastic precepts it is always the historical Buddha taking the executive role for every legal decision. As such, the narratives offer a strong traditional story regarding the development of the monastic precepts. The purpose of this lecture is to deconstruct this traditional story and to bring to light the dynamic interaction between the Buddhist community and other ascetic communities through a systematic examination of the references made to non-Buddhists (titthiya) in the Pāli Vinaya. A critical examination of when, how and why mention is made of titthiya in the Pāli Vinaya will bring to light how the interaction and confrontation with titthiyas influenced the development of the Buddhist monastic precepts.