Research topic: The history of migration
Migration as a concept covers both immigration and emigration. Migration has been a fundamental phenomenon in the history of mankind.
The study of migration encompasses the causes of emigration and the actual process of migration and immigration (i.e., encounters with the recipient society, adaptation to the recipient country and continued contact with the country of origin), as well as the long process of migrants' acceptance as members of the recipient society.
The most well-known example of migration from recent centuries is that of immigration from Europe to the United States, Canada, Australia and South America. Emigration from Norway to America started in 1825. Mass emigration started in 1866, although this came to a halt during the 1920s because of the crisis in the world economy. In total approximately 800,000 Norwegians emigrated to America during this period.
From the Middle Ages until the 19th century it was common practice to bring skilled workers in commerce, the trades and industry to Norway. For example, the mining industries at Røros and Kongsberg were developed using German expertise. During the period 1800-1920, large numbers of skilled and unskilled workers migrated to Norway, especially from Sweden and Finland.
Employment-related immigration recommenced following World War II. Workers were recruited from an increasingly wide area and today recruitment has become globalised. 1975 saw a temporary halt in employment-related immigration. For several decades migrants were predominantly refugees, asylum seekers and spouses. Since around 2000, employment-related immigration has taken off again.