Presentations at the Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (ESCOM)
This year's conference of the European Society for Cognitive Sciences Of Music (ESCOM) is held at the University of Ghent in Belgium. Several papers are presented by researchers connected to the fourMs group.
Investigating Musical Meter as Shape: Two Case Studies of Brazilian Samba and Norwegian Telespringar (PDF)
Mari Romarheim Haugen
The perception of musical meter is fundamental for rhythm production and perception in much music. Underlying structures such as pulse, meter, and metrical subdivisions are often described as successive mental beats. This paper investigates whether experienced musical meter may not only include such mental points in time, but also trajectories between the points–that is, metrical shapes. Two motion capture studies form the empirical basis of this paper; first, a percussionist and a dancer performing Brazilian samba; second, a fiddler and two dancers performing Norwegian telespringar. The analysis of the performers’ periodic body motions revealed periodic motion shapes on beat level in telespringar and on sixteenth note level in samba. The results support the view that there is a close relationship between musical meter and performers’ periodic body motion and suggest that the underlying meter may not only include metrical points in time, but that each metrical beat/subdivision duration has a corresponding metrical trajectory with a certain shape.
Tracing melodies: An observation study of hand movements to vocal phrases from different musical cultures
Tejaswinee Kelkar and Alexander Refsum Jensenius
Melodic contour, defined as the overarching shape of rising and falling of pitch over time, has been studied using sound tracings, melodic similarity and expectation ratings and other methods. Some methods to compare melodic contours have been investigated comparatively (Schmuckler, 1999). One of the methods used to investigate music perception as motion, is sound tracings (Nymoen et al, 2011). It is a way to spontaneously render a sound on paper or in space as one listens to it. The idea is to be able to access the intermodal synthesis of the auditory experience of music. Sound tracing studies have been mostly carried out using digital tablets or on paper. In this abstract, we present qualitative analysis of a sound tracing study in three dimensional space, and strategies that are used by people to represent musical features and move to melodies across genres. We report an analysis of movement pertaining to different genres of melody, and propose some reasons for those constructions.
Impulse-driven sound-motion objects
Rolf Inge Godøy and Minho Song
Our own and other research seems to suggest that perception and cognition of musical sound is closely linked with images of sound-producing body motion, and that chunks of sound are perceived as linked with chunks of sound-producing body motion, leading us to the concept of sound-motion objects in music. One challenge in our research is trying to understand how such sound-motion objects actually emerge in music. Taking into account findings in motor control research as well as in our own research, we hypothesize that there is a so-called intermittent motor control scheme at work in sound-producing body motion, meaning a discontinuous, point-by-point control scheme, resulting in a series of holistically conceived chunks of sound-producing motion, in turn resulting in the perception of music as concatenations of coherent sound-motion objects.
Arm and head movements to musical passages of electronic dance music
Ragnhild Torvanger Solberg and Alexander Refsum Jensenius
Break, build and drop: Embodied listening as expressive interaction with electronic dance music
Ragnhild Solberg and Nicola Dibben
Facing a new era in studying music-induced emotions – How letting go of the status quo may help seeing the seemingly invisible
The enjoyment of sadness-inducing music is mediated by feelings of being moved
Jonna Vuoskoski & Tuomas Eerola