Samuel Andrew Hardy

Postdoctoral Fellow - Det norske institutt i Roma
Image of Samuel Andrew Hardy
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Phone +393208666664
Mobile phone 00393208666664
Visiting address Viale Trenta Aprile 33 00153 Roma
Postal address Viale Trenta Aprile 33 00153 Roma

Academic interests

Ever since my PhD on Cyprus, my research has encompassed the law, ethics and politics of archaeological work in conflict economies, particularly in occupied territories and internationally-unrecognized administrations; destruction of cultural property; looting, theft and forgery of cultural objects; and heritage propaganda. Since then, I have used open-source research to trace the history of conflict antiquities trafficking (the financing of political violence with the proceeds of heritage crime) around the world; to document the functioning of trafficking in Turkey, Syria, Iraq and elsewhere; and to fact-check claims of damage, destruction, looting and theft in countries from Ukraine to Libya to Yemen.

As part of the Heritage Experience Initiative, my project will examine the relationships between illicit trafficking of cultural objects and political violence in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. First, focusing on the Eastern Mediterranean, I will explore the practice of looting; the interconnections between cultural property crimes and other crimes; and the politics of policing. Second, focusing on West Asia and North Africa, I will review the evidence for conflict antiquities trafficking; the use of heritage propaganda; and the interconnections between antiquities trafficking and the refugee crisis. Third, focusing on North Africa and the Western Mediterranean, I will explore the transnational networks that bridge conflict zones and antiquities markets. Altogether, this evidence will inform efforts to reduce the loss of cultural heritage and the income of violent organizations.


I will contribute to teaching the following courses at the University of Oslo: 

  • Heritage, Material Culture and Conflict (ARK4210), Spring, Oslo
  • Roma - Sted og symbol (Roma2020), Autumn, Rome
  • Etterutdanningskurs for lærere, Winter, Rome


  • Senior Visiting Fellow, UCL Qatar (2018-2019)
  • Consultant, ICOM (2018)
  • Consultant, ICOM (2017)
  • Consultant, UNESCO Office in Amman (2017)
  • Critical Heritage Research Fellow, Research Center for Anatolian Civilizations (ANAMED), Koç University (2016)
  • Consultant, UNESCO HQ (2016)
  • Consultant, Global Witness (2015)
  • Adjunct Professor, American University of Rome (since 2014)
  • Honorary Research Associate, Institute of Archaeology, University College London (since 2013)


  • DPhil in Law Studies, University of Sussex (2005-2011)
  • Studies in Modern Greek Language and Culture, University of Ioannina (2009-2010)
  • MSc in Social Research Methods, University of Sussex (2004-2005)
  • MA in Cultural Heritage Studies, University College London (2003-2004)
  • BA in Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield (2000-2003)


Member of the Circolo Gianicolense - a research network in the Gianicolo area of Rome.


Published Aug. 17, 2020 1:13 PM - Last modified May 4, 2021 11:17 AM