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Between runes and manuscripts

Between runes and manuscripts there were the Roman-alphabet inscriptions. This is the first comprehensive study of these inscriptions and the role they played in the Norwegian Viking and Middle Ages.

Book with brown wooden cover.

The Kvikne-psalter (NBO Ms.8vo 102).

Photo: Elise Kleivane

About the project

The project Between runes and manuscripts. Roman-alphabet inscriptions in Viking Age and Medieval Norway will focus on a category of written documents that has received remarkably little attention: inscriptions from Norway written in Roman-alphabet script. Norwegian manuscripts and runic inscriptions are already thoroughly described and analysed.

The primary objective for this project is to provide a comprehensive study of Roman-alphabet inscriptions from Viking Age and Medieval Norway. Roman-alphabet inscriptions are not sufficiently documented or studied as a whole. It is not possible to understand Viking Age and Medieval literacy unless the implications of the triangular relationship between manuscripts, runes and Roman-alphabet epigraphy are sorted out. This relationship cannot be sorted out without a full study also of the Roman-alphabet inscriptions.

Roman-alphabet inscriptions are found on a wide range of objects. The oldest examples from Norway are coins. Later we get inscribed grave stones, church bells, church decorations and liturgical objects such as chalices. Outside of churches there are inscriptions on lead sheets, drinking horns, seals and jewellery – to mention some examples. In addition there are several inscriptions that must be characterized as graffiti. Interestingly, most of these types of objects are also found among the runic material.

The project is set up in two stages. Both stages will contribute to meet the primary objective. The first stage is to construct a database for Norwegian Roman-alphabet inscriptions. The database will be the foundation for further analysis within the project’s second stage, where Roman-alphabet epigraphy will be analysed in order to meet the project’s secondary objectives:

  • To demonstrate how the foreign Roman script introduced in the Viking Age was transformed into a vernacular script;
  • to bring forth new knowledge about the uses and functions of writing outside manuscripts; and
  • to determine whether Roman-alphabet inscriptions are best understood in relation to runic inscriptions because both are epigraphic, or to the learned and imported manuscript culture because they are written with Roman letters, or if they are best understood as a writing culture of their own.

Project period

The project period is from August 2017 to February 2021.


The Research Council of Norway


Centre for the Study of the Viking Age, The University of Nottingham


  • Kleivane, Elise (2021). Skrift og språk i mellomalderen. Ms.8° 102, Kvikne-psalteret. In Ostad, Johanne & Kleivane, Elise (Ed.), Språk i arkivet. Historier om hvordan språk reflekterer samfunnet. Nasjonalbiblioteket. ISSN 978-82-7965-465-0. p. 28–59.
  • Bollaert, Johan Georges P (2021). Dating Medieval Roman Alphabet Inscriptions– An Example from Hallvard’s Cathedral in Oslo. Collegium Medievale. ISSN 0801-9282. 24. Full text in Research Archive
  • Kleivane, Elise (2021). Kulisteinen og kommunikasjonen. In Stige, Morten & Risbøl, Ole (Ed.), Kulisteinen - grensemerke i tid og rom. Nordmøre museum. ISSN 9788292264287. p. 152–171.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2021). Roman-Script Epigraphy in Norwegian Towns. In Andersen, Kasper H.; Netterstrøm, Jeppe Büchert; Imer, Lisbeth M.; Poulsen, Bjørn & Olesen, Rikke Steenholt (Ed.), Urban Literacy in the Nordic Middle Ages. Brepols. ISSN 978-2-503-59674-7. p. 105–134. doi: 10.1484/M.USML-EB.5.126234.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2019). To menn og Ave Maria i Hamarkaupangen . Maal og Minne. ISSN 0024-855X. p. 69–99. Full text in Research Archive
  • Kleivane, Elise (2018). Epigraphic Ave Maria as evidence of medieval literacy. In Bauer, Alessia; Kleivane, Elise & Spurkland, Terje (Ed.), Epigraphy in an intermedial context. Four Courts Press. ISSN 9781846827167. p. 101–122.

View all works in Cristin

  • Kleivane, Elise (2021). Norrønt: hjalpa.
  • Bollaert, Johan Georges P (2021). Epigraphy and place: "Hamar-I".
  • Bollaert, Johan Georges P (2021). Visuality and literacy in medieval norwegian epigraphy.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2021). Runene på Bildentekstilet: fagseminar.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2021). A matter of invisibility.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2021). Grafeminventar og bokstavformer i norske sigill frå mellomalderen.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2021). Kulisteinen (N449). Lesing, tolking og kommunikasjonen.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2021). Bokstavar mellom runer og manuskript. NFR-prosjekt.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2021). A til Å.
  • Kleivane, Elise & Mari, Lilleslåtten (2020). Noreg har vore fleirspråkleg sidan før mellomalderen. [Internet].
  • Lilleslåtten, Mari (2020). Noreg har vore fleirspråkleg heilt sidan mellomalderen.
  • Kleivane, Elise & Lilleslåtten, Mari (2020). Korleis gjekk vi frå å bruke runer til å skrive med bokstavar? [Internet]. UiO: Det humanistiske fakultet (Facebook).
  • Kleivane, Elise (2019). Frösöstenen: ein nabo i nord.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2019). Runer og bokstavar på Domkirkeodden og i Hamar bispedømme.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2019). Runene på Bildentekstilet.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2019). Multilingualism in Medieval Scandinavia.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2019). The many faces of Stjórn.
  • Bollaert, Johan (2019). Visible inscriptions in urban and rural Norway.
  • Bollaert, Johan (2019). Gravstenarnas placering, skriftens läsbarhet och minnet efter de döda - Två gravstenar från Hallvardskatedralen.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2019). Metal texts. A discussion on metal as medium for writing, and the implications it has for textual content and choice of script.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2019). "Hvordan skrev folk for 1000 år siden?". [Internet].
  • Kleivane, Elise (2019). Politics, prayers, and protection in Hamar.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2019). Messages from a wooden book cover.
  • Bollaert, Johan (2019). Unusual Interpunction: (a lack of) Literacy?
  • Bollaert, Johan (2019). Visuality and Literacy in Medieval Norwegian Epigraphy.
  • Bollaert, Johan (2019). Material directing form? - The design of public inscriptions on stone.
  • Bollaert, Johan (2019). literacitet och visualitet i norges medeltida inskrifter.
  • Bollaert, Johan (2018). HER:HVILIR or her:hvilir - Carving Traditions in Medieval Norway.
  • Bollaert, Johan (2018). Roman Alphabet Epigraphy in Medieval Scandinavia - A Writing Culture?
  • Kleivane, Elise (2018). Doing things in medieval Norway with Roman-alphabet inscriptions.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2018). N 825 og Birger Jørstad.
  • Kleivane, Elise & Bollaert, Johan (2018). <authority>Bokstavar mellom runer og manuskript</authority>.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2018). NBO Ms. 8vo 102, Kvikne-psalteriet.
  • Kleivane, Elise (2018). Tatoveringar, gaming, nynazistar og naive strikkebedrifter.
  • Bollaert, Johan (2017). Roman alphabetical inscriptions – A writing culture in Scandinavia?

View all works in Cristin

Tags: Roman-alphabet script, Runes, Manuscripts, Old Norse, Latin, Middle Low German, Medieval period, Middle Ages, Viking Age, Inscriptions, Epigraphy
Published Feb. 14, 2017 2:13 PM - Last modified Aug. 2, 2022 2:36 PM


Project leader

Elise Kleivane