Hilde Henriksen Waage

Professor - History
Image of Hilde Henriksen Waage
Norwegian version of this page
Phone +47 22857238
Room NT 430
Visiting address Niels Henrik Abels vei 36 Niels Treschows hus 0851 OSLO
Postal address Postboks 1008 Blindern 0315 OSLO

Fields of academic interest

  • Peace and conflict in the Middle East
  • Power politics in the 20th century
  • US foreign policy after World War II
  • Norwegian foreign policy after World War II

Ongoing research: The Missing Peace

Few adversaries have been enmeshed in a more vicious spiral of hostility than Israel, the Palestinians and their Arab neighbours. Except for the Camp David Accords between Israel and Egypt (1978) and the peace agreement with Jordan (1994) have countless efforts by individuals, organisations, large and small states to open up direct channels of dialogue ended in failure. The United States has for years been trying to stop the fighting over the land that Israel, the Palestinians and the Arab neighbours claim to be theirs. So has the United Nations. Why have all mediation attempts between these parties so far proved unsuccessful? What are the conditions that need to be met in order to have a solution that could be tolerated by them? Why isn’t there any ongoing peace process? To what extent is third party intervention necessary or desirable? Have the many failed interventions lacked the necessary skill, the political will, the clout – or all three? Does perhaps the power asymmetry between a strong Israel, on the one hand, and the weak Arab states and Palestinians, on the other, explain the lack of any peaceful outcome? 


  • 2005-present: Professor of History, University of Oslo.
  • 2005-present: Researcher at The Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) in a part-time capacity.
  • 1996-2005: Deputy Director at PRIO.
  • 1995-2005: Senior Researcher at PRIO.
  • 2001-2003: Programme Leader, Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding Programme, PRIO.
  • 1992-1993: Acting Director at PRIO.


  • 2016: BA in Modern Hebrew
  • 1997: Dr. philos., University of Oslo (History)
  • 1987: Cand.philol., University of Oslo (History)
  • 1982: Cand. mag., University of Oslo
Tags: History, Contemporary History, Peace and Conflict


2017: «Facing Assad. American Diplomacy Toward Syria, 1973–1977», International History Review, with Lars Hasvoll Bakke.

2016: «A Balancing Pretence: The Johnson Administration’s Policy towards Jordan, 1964–1967», British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, with Joakim Aalmen Markussen.

2016: «Israel og palestinerne: Freden som uteble»[Israel and the Palestinians: The peace that never came], i: Mona Christine Fixdal (ed.), Fredsmegling i teori og praksis [Peace mediation in theory and practice], Cappelen Damm Akademisk. 

2016: “Cementing a State of Belligerency: The 1949 Armistice Negotiations between Israel and Syria”, Middle East Journal,70(1): 69-89, with Petter Stenberg.

2015: “Mission Impossible: UN Special Representative Gunnar Jarring and His Quest for Peace in the Middle East, International History Review, 24 pp, with Hulda Kjeang Mørk.

2015: “Weak Third Parties and Ripening: Revisiting Norwegian Interventions in Guatemala and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, International Negotiations,20(3): 389–413, with Ada Nissen.

2014: “The Palestine Option: Nixon, the National Security Council, and the search for a new policy, 1970”, Diplomatic History, 38(1): 182-209, with Simen Zernichow.

2013. “‘Finishing the Enterprise’: Israel's Admission to the United Nations”, International History Review, 35(3): 465-485, with Marte Heian-Engdal and Jørgen Jensehaugen.

2013.   Konflikt og stormaktspolitikk i Midtøsten [Conflict and Great Power Politics in the Middle East]. Kristiansand: Cappelen Damm Akademisk, 512 pp.

  • Nissen, Ada & Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2021). Lite land, stor vilje. Norges internasjonale fredsengasjement, I: Helge Øystein Pharo; Sunniva Engh; Kjell Inge Bjerga; Gunnar D. Hatlehol & Kristine Offerdal (red.),  Historiker, strateg og brobygger. Festskrift til Rolf Tamnes 70 år.  Pax Forlag.  ISBN 9788253042534.  Kapittel.
  • Sitter, Robin & Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2021). En brikke ingen turte røre: Norges fredsbevarende bidrag i Libanon 1978–1982. Historisk Tidsskrift (Norge).  ISSN 0018-263X.  100(1), s 67- 80 . doi: 10.18261/issn.1504-2944-2021-01-06 Show summary
  • Andersson, Magnus Seland & Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2020). Stew in Their Own Juice: Reagan, Syria and Lebanon, 1981-1984. Diplomatic History.  ISSN 0145-2096.  44(4), s 664- 691 . doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/dh/dhaa036 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Salberg, Mari & Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2019). Master of the Game: The Relationship between the United States and Iran Revisited, 1969-1972. Diplomacy & Statecraft.  ISSN 0959-2296.  30(3), s 468- 489 . doi: 10.1080/09592296.2019.1641921
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen & Huse, Geir Bergersen (2019). A Careful Minuet: The United States, Israel, Syria and the Lebanese Civil War, 1975–1976. International History Review.  ISSN 0707-5332. . doi: 10.1080/07075332.2019.1678507
  • Bakke, Lars Hasvoll & Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2018). Facing Assad. American Diplomacy Toward Syria, 1973–1977. International History Review.  ISSN 0707-5332.  40(3), s 546- 572 . doi: 10.1080/07075332.2017.1334687 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen & Jensehaugen, Jørgen (2018). Å forhandle bort Palestina. Babylon - Nordisk tidsskrift for Midtøstenstudier.  ISSN 1503-5727.  16(2), s 142- 153 . doi: 10.5617/ba.6732
  • Markussen, Joakim Aalmen & Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2016). A Balancing Pretence: The Johnson administration's Policy towards Jordan, 1964-1967. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies.  ISSN 1353-0194.  45(3), s 321- 336 . doi: 10.1080/13530194.2016.1246243
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2016). Israel og palestinerne: Freden som uteble, I: Mona Christine Fixdal (red.),  Fredsmegling i teori og praksis.  Cappelen Damm Akademisk.  ISBN 9788202515782.  4.  s 85 - 111
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen & Mørk, Hulda Kjeang (2016). Mission Impossible: UN Special Representative Gunnar Jarring and His Quest for Peace in the Middle East. International History Review.  ISSN 0707-5332.  38(4), s 830- 853 . doi: 10.1080/07075332.2015.1091783
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen & Stenberg, Petter (2016). Cementing a State of Belligerency: The 1949 Armistice Negotiations between Israel and Syria. The Middle East Journal.  ISSN 0026-3141.  70(1), s 69- 89 . doi: 10.1353/mej.2016.0015
  • Nissen, Ada Elisabeth & Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2015). Weak Third Parties and Ripening: Revisiting Norwegian Interventions in Guatemala and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. International Negotiation.  ISSN 1382-340X.  20(3), s 389- 413 . doi: 10.1163/15718069-12341314
  • Zernichow, Simen & Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2014). The Palestine option: Nixon, the national security council, and the search for a new policy, 1970. Diplomatic History.  ISSN 0145-2096.  38(1), s 182- 209 . doi: 10.1093/dh/dht090
  • Heian-Engdal, Marte; Jensehaugen, Jørgen & Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2013). ‘Finishing the Enterprise’: Israel's Admission to the United Nations. International History Review.  ISSN 0707-5332.  35(3), s 465- 485 . doi: 10.1080/07075332.2013.795493
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2013). Champions of Peace? Tools in Whose Hands? Norwegians and Peace Brokering in the Middle East, In Petter Bauck & Mohammed K. Omer (ed.),  The Oslo Accords 1993-2013. A Critical Assessment.  The American University in Cairo Press (AUC Press) & I.B. Tauris.  ISBN 9781617973369.  Kapittel 3.  s 29 - 39
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2013). Midtøsten - konfliktenes region, I: Hilde Henriksen Waage; Rolf Tamnes & Hanne Hagtvedt Vik (red.),  Krig og fred i det lange 20. århundre.  Cappelen Damm Akademisk.  ISBN 978-82-02-43191-4.  Kapittel 5.  s 114 - 136
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen; Tamnes, Rolf & Vik, Hanne Hagtvedt (2013). Innledning, I: Hilde Henriksen Waage; Rolf Tamnes & Hanne Hagtvedt Vik (red.),  Krig og fred i det lange 20. århundre.  Cappelen Damm Akademisk.  ISBN 978-82-02-43191-4.  Innledning.  s 12 - 18
  • Jensehaugen, Jørgen; Heian-Engdal, Marte & Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2012). Securing the State: From Zionist Ideology to Israeli Statehood. Diplomacy & Statecraft.  ISSN 0959-2296.  23(2), s 280- 303 . doi: 10.1080/09592296.2012.679478?src=recsys#.VQXOx46G_V8
  • Jensehaugen, Jørgen & Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2012). Coercive Diplomacy: Israel, Transjordan and the UN-a Triangular Drama Revisited. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies.  ISSN 1353-0194.  39(1), s 79- 100 . doi: 10.1080/13530194.2012.659445
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2012). Et norsk mysterium - de forsvunne dokumentene fra fredsprosessen i Midtøsten, I: Roy Gunnar Krøvel & Kristin Skare Orgeret (red.),  Historier om verden.  IJ-forlaget.  ISBN 978-82-7147-361-7.  Del 1, Fagtekster.  s 63 - 66
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2012). Proactive Peace Diplomacy: Jan Egeland, In Mona Christine Fixdal (ed.),  Ways out of War: Peacemakers in the Middle East and Balkans.  Palgrave Macmillan.  ISBN 1137030534.  Kapittel.  s 91 - 118
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2011). The Winner Takes All: The 1949 Island of Rhodes Armistice Negotiations Revisited. The Middle East Journal.  ISSN 0026-3141.  65(2), s 279- 304 . doi: 10.3751/65.2.15
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen & Johansen, Stian Tiller (2011). Powerful State, Powerless Mediator: The United States and the Peace Efforts of the Palestine Conciliation Commission, 1949-51. International History Review.  ISSN 0707-5332.  33(3), s 501- 524 . doi: 10.1080/07075332.2011.595245
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2009). Fredspolitikk i Midtøsten, I: Even Lange; Helge Pharo & Øyvind Østerud (red.),  Vendepunkter i norsk utenrikspolitikk. Nye internasjonale vilkår etter den kalde krigen.  Unipub forlag.  ISBN 978-82-7477-360-8.  Kapittel.  s 157 - 208
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2008). Et norsk mysterium. De forsvunne dokumentene fra fredsprosessen i Midtøsten. Historisk Tidsskrift (Norge).  ISSN 0018-263X.  87(2), s 289- 303
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2008). Postscript to Oslo: The Mystery of Norway's Missing Files. Journal of Palestine Studies.  ISSN 0377-919X.  38(1), s 54- 65 . doi: http://www.swetswise.com/FullTextProxy/swproxy?url=http%3A%2F%2Fcaliber.ucpress.net%2Fdoi%2Fpdf%2F10.1525%2Fjps.2008.38.1.54&ts=1234184746643&cs=1335575540&userName=3117227.ipdirect&emCondId=3117227&articleID=39155273&yevoID=2392524&titleID=114323&referer=1&remoteAddr=
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2007). The 'Minnow' and the 'Whale': Norway and the United States in the Peace Process in the Middle East. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies.  ISSN 1353-0194.  34(2), s 157- 176 . doi: 10.1080/13530190701427917 Show summary
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2005). Norway's Role in the Middle East Peace Talks: Between a Strong State and a Weak Belligerent. Journal of Palestine Studies.  ISSN 0377-919X.  34(4), s 6- 24

View all works in Cristin

  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2013). Konflikt og stormaktspolitikk i Midtøsten. Cappelen Damm Akademisk.  ISBN 978-82-02-40831-2.  512 s.
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen; Tamnes, Rolf & Vik, Hanne Hagtvedt (red.) (2013). Krig og fred i det lange 20. århundre. Cappelen Damm Akademisk.  ISBN 978-82-02-43191-4.  395 s.

View all works in Cristin

  • Jensehaugen, Jørgen; Martins, Bruno Oliveira; Waage, Hilde Henriksen & Palik, Julia (2020). A House Divided: EU Policy on the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict. MidEast Policy Brief. 2.
  • Aarebrot, Frank; Waage, Hilde Henriksen; Gundersen, Kristian; Matlary, Janne Haaland; Hessen, Dag Olav; Brochmann, Grete; Eriksen, Trond Berg; Lomheim, Sylfest; Hurum, Jørn Harald; Hellesøy, Cathrine & Endresen, Kristoffer Hatteland (2010, 26. juni). Vi er ikke blitt redde!.  Aftenposten.
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2008). A Norwegian mystery. The missing documents from the Middle Eastern peace process. Historisk Tidsskrift (Norge).  ISSN 0018-263X.  87, s 289- 303
  • Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2008). Trita Parsi, Treacherous Alliance: The Secret Dealings of Israel, Iran and the United States. The International History Review.  XXX(4), s 921- 923
  • Noreng, Øystein; Hovdenak, Are; Tønneson, Stein & Waage, Hilde Henriksen (2005). Regime Stability in the Middle East.

View all works in Cristin

Published Dec. 14, 2010 2:33 PM - Last modified Feb. 5, 2018 1:47 PM


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