Norwegian version of this page

Music on demand: Economy and copyright in a digitised cultural sector (MUSEC) (completed)

MUSEC investigated how values and rights are negotiated and evaluated when music is produced and distributed via digital media. 

Headphones as ears and one hundred kroner bills as head and to coins as eyes. Illustration.

About the project

The use of digital media technology is fundamentally changing the ways in which cultural content, such as music and film, is produced and distributed, and the opportunities for earning revenue. By exploring the uses and implications of new media, the project unpacked one of the most challenging issues of the cultural sector in the 2000s: How should art and creative work be paid for?

By uniting scholars in media, music, economics and copyright, the project carried out interdisciplinary analyses of how artists and organisations maintain their professional ambitions, economic interests and intellectual property rights (IPR) in the face of new media services. The analyses zoomed in on negotiations between producers and distributors, competition in national and global markets, and the effects of state intervention. 

Through qualitative interviews, quantitative surveys, document analysis and case studies, the project offered new contributions to the study and discussion of the economics and copyright of music.

The project started in December 2017 and ended in January 2021. 

Cooperation

The project was led by Yngvar Kjus at the Department of Musicology at the University of Oslo. The research team comprised Arnt Maasø from the Department of Media and Communication (UiO), Anja Nylund Hagen from the Department of Musicology (UiO), Olav Torvund from the Department of Private Law (UiO) and Ruth Towse from Bournemouth University. 

Financing

The project was financed by the KULMEDIA-programme of the Research Council of Norway.  

For more information, see the project description (pdf). 

Publications

Book

Hagen, Anja Nylund, Mari Torvik Heian, Roy Aulie Jacobsen og Bård Kleppe (2021): Fra plate til plattform: Norsk musikk ut i verden. Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademisk. 

Articles and chapters

Kjus, Yngvar and Roy Aulie Jacobsen (2022): Will the EU's directive on copyright in the digital market change the power balance of the music industry? Views from Norway. The Nordic Journal of Cultural Policy 25(1), 28-42. 

Kjus, Yngvar, Hendrik S. Spilker and Håvard Kiberg (2022): Liveness online in deadly times: How artists explored the expressive potential of live-streaming concerts at the face of Covid-19 in Norway. First Monday 27(6). 

Hagen, Anja Nylund (2022): Musikkforlagenes rolle i den digitale musikkbransjen. I Musikerne, bransjen og samfunnet, Sigrid Røyseng, Heidi Stavrum og John Vinge (red.), Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademisk, 173-198. 

Maasø, Arnt og Hendrik Storstein Spilker (2022): The Streaming Paradox: Untangling the Hybrid Gatekeeping Mechanisms of Music StreamingPopular Music and Society.

Kjus, Yngvar (2022): Twists and turns in the 360 deal: Spinning the risks and rewards of artist–label relations in the streaming eraEuropean Journal of Cultural Studies 25(2), 463-478.  

Kjus, Yngvar (2022): License to stream? A study of how rights-holders have responded to music streaming services in Norway. International Journal of Cultural Policy 28(1), 61-73. 

Hagen, Anja Nylund (2021): Datafication, Literacy and Democratization in the Music IndustryPopular Music and Society.

Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020): Music in streams: Communicating music in the streaming paradigm, in Michael Filimowicz & Veronika Tzankova (red.),  Reimagining Communication: Mediation. Routledge.

Kjus, Yngvar and Hendrik S. Spilker (2020): Lyden av digitalisering: Preludium om musikk og medierNorsk medietidsskrift.

Towse, Ruth (2020): Dealing with digital: the economic organisation of streamed musicMedia, Culture & Society.

Maasø, Arnt and Anja Nylund Hagen (2019): Metrics and decision-making in music streamingPopular Communication.

Kjus, Yngvar (2019): The use of copyright in digital times: A study of how artists exercise their rights in Norway Popular Music and Society.

Spilker, Hendrik, Yngvar Kjus, Håvard Kiberg (forthcoming): Nødløsninger med langtidsvirkninger: Artisters og konsertarrangørers erfaringer med direktestrømmede "koronakonserter", i Digital kultur, Estetiske praksiser, Knut Ove Eliassen, Anne Ogundipe og Øyvind Prytz (red.) Kulturrådets bokserie. 

Further work is in progress and under review.

Reports

Hagen, Anja Nylund, Mari Torvik Heian, Roy Aulie Jacobsen and Bård Kleppe (2020): Digital ambivalens. Norsk musikk i internasjonale markeder

Master theses

Skjerdal, Øyvind (2020): Rettigheter og muligheter. Betydningen av opphavsrett for dem som skaper musikk.

Evensen, Henrik (2020): Opplevelsen av musikk på radio og i strømmetjenester.

In the media

We have released a special issue on music and digital media in Norsk medietidsskrift (in Norwegian), 27(3).  

"Vil ha opphavsretten ut av lukkede rom (ballade.no, in Norwegian)", Yngvar Kjus, comment in Ballade.no 7. januar 2020. 

"Musikkbransjen er ikke så digital som vi tror (dn.no, in Norwegian)", Anja Nylund Hagen in Dagens Næringsliv 14. mars 2019.

"Norsk musikk i internasjonale markeder (bylarm.no, in Norwegian)", by:Larm 28 February 2019. 

"Tillitskrise for Tidal og tech (dn.no, in Norwegian)", Arnt Maasø in Dagens Næringsliv, 11 May 2018. 

MUSEC session at by:Larm at 1 pm on 1 March 2018.

"Dur eller moll for norsk musikk? (dn.no, in Norwegian)", Yngvar Kjus in Dagens Næringsliv, 17 December 2017.

Introduction to copyright law: http://www.copyrightuser.org

 

Publications

  • Maasø, Arnt & Spilker, Hendrik Storstein (2022). The Streaming Paradox: Untangling the Hybrid Gatekeeping Mechanisms of Music Streaming. Popular music and society. ISSN 0300-7766. 45(3), p. 300–316. doi: 10.1080/03007766.2022.2026923. Full text in Research Archive
  • Kjus, Yngvar & Jacobsen, Roy Aulie (2022). Will the EU’s directive on copyright in the digital market change the power balance of the music industry? Views from Norway. . Nordisk kulturpolitisk tidsskrift. ISSN 1403-3216. 25(1), p. 28–42. doi: 10.18261/nkt.25.1.3.
  • Kjus, Yngvar; Spilker, Hendrik Storstein & Kiberg, Håvard (2022). Liveness online in deadly times: How artists explored the expressive potential of live-streamed concerts at the face of COVID-19 in Norway. First Monday. ISSN 1396-0466. 27(6). doi: 10.5210/fm.v27i6.12398.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2021). Datafication, Literacy, and Democratization in the Music Industry. Popular music and society. ISSN 0300-7766. p. 1–19. doi: 10.1080/03007766.2021.1989558.
  • Kjus, Yngvar (2021). Twists and turns in the 360 deal: Spinning the risks and rewards of artist–label relations in the streaming era. European Journal of Cultural Studies. ISSN 1367-5494. 25(2), p. 463–478. doi: 10.1177/13675494211044731.
  • Kjus, Yngvar (2021). License to stream? A study of how rights-holders have responded to music streaming services in Norway. The International Journal of Cultural Policy. ISSN 1028-6632. 28(1), p. 61–73. doi: 10.1080/10286632.2021.1908276.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Music in Streams: Communicating Music in the Streaming Paradigm . In Filimowicz, Michael & Tzankova, Veronika (Ed.), Reimagining Communication: Mediation (1st Edition). Routledge. ISSN 9781138498914. p. 210–225.
  • Towse, Ruth (2020). Dealing with digital: the economic organisation of streamed music. Media, Culture and Society. ISSN 0163-4437. doi: 10.1177/0163443720919376. Full text in Research Archive
  • Maasø, Arnt & Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Metrics and decision-making in music streaming. Popular Communication - The International Journal of Media and Culture. ISSN 1540-5702. doi: 10.1080/15405702.2019.1701675. Full text in Research Archive
  • Kjus, Yngvar (2019). The Use of Copyright in Digital Times: A Study of How Artists Exercise Their Rights in Norway. Popular music and society. ISSN 0300-7766. doi: 10.1080/03007766.2019.1698206. Full text in Research Archive

View all works in Cristin

View all works in Cristin

  • Kjus, Yngvar (2021). Har internett gjort det vanskeligere å lykkes i musikkbransjen? [Radio]. NRK P2 - Studio 2.
  • Kjus, Yngvar; Hagen, Anja Nylund; Torvund, Olav & Maasø, Arnt (2021). Musikk, opphavsrett og internett.
  • Kjus, Yngvar (2021). Strømming gjør det vanskeligere å lykkes i musikkbransjen enn noensinne. [Internet]. www.hf.uio.no/imv/forskning/aktuelt.
  • Kjus, Yngvar & Spilker, Hendrik Storstein (2021). Liveness in deadly times: How artists in Norway explored the expressive potential of live-streamed concerts at the face of Covid-19 .
  • Kjus, Yngvar (2020). Vil ha opphavsretten ut av lukkede rom. [Business/trade/industry journal]. Ballade.no.
  • Kjus, Yngvar & Spilker, Hendrik Storstein (2020). Introduksjon til seminar om musikk og medier i den digitale tiden.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Spotifys makt vokser i takt med nye lyttevaner. [Internet]. UiO: Det Humanistiske Fakultet.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Hvilken musikk hører vi på i karantene? [Radio]. NRK P2.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Artister sprer musikken sin på TikTok. [TV]. Dagsrevyen, NRK1.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Fra TikTok til strømmetoppen. [Radio]. Nyhetsmorgen, P2.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Forsker tror man vil se flere artister på TikTok . [Internet]. nrk.no.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). – Vi kunne vært verdensledende . [Internet]. ballade.no.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Det store skillet mellom digitale vinnere og tapere. [Internet]. ballade.no.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Ny rapport: - Digitaliseringen i musikkbransjen må profesjonaliseres. [Internet]. KulturPlot.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund; Molde, Audun; Nathaus, Klaus & Mitrovic, Minja (2020). Panel: “The Impacts of the Covid-19 crisis on the cultural and creative sectors” .
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Kan datamaskiner lage hitmusikk? . [TV]. NRK Nyhetsmorgen.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). DDE med direktestrøyma julemusikal. [TV]. Dagsrevyen, NRK1.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Norske artister bruker TikTok for å spre musikken sin. [Radio]. NRK P1, Dagens .
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). TikTok som maktfaktor i musikkbransjen. [Radio]. Studio 2, NRK P2.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). De som får folk til å danse sammen. [Internet]. ballade.no.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Krise og kreativitet - musikkbransjen og koronapandemien 2020 .
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Derfor kommer ny musikk i mye større grad som enkeltsingler. [Internet]. nrk.no.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Festivalsjef: – Strømmekonsertene er kommet for å bli . [Newspaper]. Aftenposten.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Strømmetjenestene former hvordan musikk slippes. [TV]. Dagsrevyen, NRK1.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Artister slipper låter i forkant av album. [Radio]. Nyhetsmorgen, P2.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Krise i musikkbransjen. [Business/trade/industry journal]. musikknyheter.no.
  • Kjus, Yngvar & Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Music on (and in) demand: Negotiating and competing in streaming.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Topper lister: - Helt vilt Norske Delara rager på hitlistene i Tyskland, Sveits og Østerrike. [Newspaper]. Dagbladet.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund; Heian, Mari Torvik; Jacobsen, Roy Aulie & Kleppe, Bård (2020). Norsk musikkbransje – digitale pionerer i ambivalens. ballade.no.
  • Kjus, Yngvar (2020). The record contract in flux: Developments in the agreements of artist and label in the time of music streaming.
  • Spilker, Hendrik Storstein; Kjus, Yngvar & Kiberg, Håvard (2020). Nødløsninger med langtidsvirkninger? Artisters og konsertarrangørers erfaringer med strømmekonserter.
  • Kjus, Yngvar & Spilker, Hendrik Storstein (2020). Lyden av digitalisering: Preludium om musikk og medier. Norsk Medietidsskrift. ISSN 0804-8452. 27(3), p. 1–10.
  • Spilker, Hendrik Storstein; Kjus, Yngvar & Kiberg, Håvard (2020). Nødløsninger med langtidsvirkninger? Artisters og konsertarrangørers erfaringer med direktestrømmete "koronakonserter".
  • Kjus, Yngvar & Spilker, Hendrik Storstein (2020). Redaktører for spesialnummer om musikk og medier. Norsk Medietidsskrift. ISSN 0804-8452. 27(3). doi: 10.18261/ISSN.0805-9535-2020-03-01.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Spotifys makt vokser i takt med nye lyttevaner . [Internet]. forskning.no.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Norske musikkforlag: Muligheter og utfordringer.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Bylarm: Å utvikle en artistkarriere i en digital økonomi.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2020). Hva gjør musikere når de ikke kan spille konserter? [Internet]. UiO: Det humanistiske fakultet. Sosiel medier.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). En lesning av Engasjement og arrangement: Ei utgreiing om konsertarrangørar.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Napster. Store Norske Leksikon (Nettutgaven).
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Norsk musikk i internasjonale markeder. Frokostseminar, Kulturdepartementet: Musikkeksport .
  • Kjus, Yngvar (2019). Is streaming streamlining copyright in music? .
  • Kjus, Yngvar & Brøvig-Hanssen, Ragnhild (2019). Med opphavsrett på studieplanen. [Business/trade/industry journal]. Ballade.no.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Music streaming and data literacy.
  • Maasø, Arnt (2019). How the revenue share model of music streaming services made Spotify’s ‘clickfarms’ scandals, ‘playlist payola’ and Tidal’s streaming scams possible, and how it can be fixed.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund; Sandvik, Eystein; Witek, Julia; Nedrelid, Alma & Hovland, Torkjell (2019). Å bygge en karriere i musikklivet.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Tidal. Store Norske Leksikon (Nettutgaven).
  • Kjus, Yngvar; Brøvig-Hanssen, Ragnhild; Askerøi, Eirik; Hartung, Mike; Wergeland Juell, Magnus & Karoliussen, Sara (2019). Musikkprodusentens rolle.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Thomas Hayes har signert med Sony, skal gi ut musikk. [Newspaper]. Aftenposten.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Hva definerer musikken på 2010-tallet? [Radio]. NRK, P2.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Norsk musikk og globale selskaper.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Digitalisering som utfordring for kulturindustriene .
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Musikkbransjen er ikke så digital som vi tror. Dagens næringsliv. ISSN 0803-9372. 109(109), p. 31–31.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Taylor Swift og musikklansering på Instagram. [Radio]. NRK, P2.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Norsk musikk i internasjonale markeder.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Facing the global music industry: Norwegian responses to the digitalisation of the music industry.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Anja Nylund Hagen om musikkeksport. [Radio]. Søndagsåpent, NRK P1.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Hva betyr digitaliseringen for norsk musikkeksport? [Internet]. Ballade.no.
  • Kjus, Yngvar & Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Musikkbransjen i strømmetiden.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Norsk musikkbransje og eksport.
  • Maasø, Arnt (2019). Streaming platforms and research in the Nordics.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Superstar economy and the digitalised music industry .
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). strømmetjenester. Store Norske Leksikon (Nettutgaven).
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Spotify. Store Norske Leksikon (Nettutgaven).
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2019). Bokomtale: Engasjement og arrangement - ei utgreiing om konsertarrangørar. Musikkmagasinet Ballade. ISSN 0805-5041.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2018). Norwegian music industry as global and digital media industry.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2018). Changing practices in a globalised and digitalised music industry.
  • Kjus, Yngvar (2018). Musical negotiations: How singer-songwriters relate to economy and copyright in digital times.
  • Kjus, Yngvar (2018). How to make money in music in the digital age?
  • Kjus, Yngvar (2018). Negotiating streaming rights: A study of the contracts and negotiations underlying the music streaming economy .
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2018). Competing with music in national and global markets.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund & Kjus, Yngvar (2018). How to make money in music in the digital age? .
  • Kjus, Yngvar (2018). Music on demand: Economy and copyright in a digitised cultural sector.
  • Maasø, Arnt (2018). How streaming scandals are made possible by the revenue model, and how business model innovations could bring back trust and transparency.
  • Kjus, Yngvar (2018). The use of copyright in digital times: A study of how singer-songwriters exercise their rights in evolving music markets.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund (2018). Industry in change: cultural labour in a globalised and digitalised music industry.
  • Kjus, Yngvar (2017). Dur eller moll for norsk musikk? Dagens næringsliv. ISSN 0803-9372.
  • Gran, Anne-Britt; Linn-Birgit, Kampen Kristensen; Molde, Audun; Hagen, Anja Nylund & Booth, Peter (2020). Krise og kreativitet i musikkbransjen – koronapandemien 2020. BI Centre for Creative Industries.
  • Hagen, Anja Nylund; Heian, Mari Torvik; Jacobsen, Roy Aulie & Kleppe, Bård (2020). Digital ambivalens. Norsk musikk i internasjonale markeder. Universitetet i Oslo, Telemarksforsking. ISSN 978-82-336-0342-7.

View all works in Cristin

Published June 13, 2017 1:52 PM - Last modified June 6, 2022 8:27 PM