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Music on demand: Economy and copyright in a digitised cultural sector (MUSEC)

MUSEC investigates how values and rights are negotiated and evaluated when music is produced and distributed via digital media. 

About the project

The use of digital media technology is fundamentally changing the ways in which cultural content, such as music and film, is produced and distributed, and the opportunities for earning revenue. By exploring the uses and implications of new media, the project unpacks one of the most challenging issues of the cultural sector in the 2000s: How should art and creative work be paid for?

By uniting scholars in media, music, economics and copyright, the project will carry out interdisciplinary analyses of how artists and organisations maintain their professional ambitions, economic interests and intellectual property rights (IPR) in the face of new media services. The analyses will zoom in on negotiations between producers and distributors, competition in national and global markets, and the effects of state intervention. 

Through qualitative interviews, quantitative surveys, document analysis and case studies, the project will offer new contributions to the study and discussion of the economics and copyright of music.

The project starts December 2018 and ends November 2020. 


The project is led by Yngvar Kjus at the Department of Musicology at the University of Oslo. The research team comprises Arnt Maasø from the Department of Media and Communication (UiO), Anja Nylund Hagen from the Department of Musicology (UiO), Olav Torvund from the Department of Private Law (UiO) and Ruth Towse from Bournemouth University. 


The project is financed by the KULMEDIA-programme of the Research Council of Norway.  

For more information, see the project description. 


  • Yngvar Kjus (2019). The Use of Copyright in Digital Times: A Study of How Artists Exercise Their Rights in Norway. Popular music and society.  ISSN 0300-7766.
  • Arnt Maasø & Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Metrics and decision-making in music streaming. Popular Communication - The International Journal of Media and Culture.  ISSN 1540-5702.

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  •  (2020). Vil ha opphavsretten ut av lukkede rom.
  • Yngvar Kjus & Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Musikkbransjen i strømmetiden.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Norsk musikk i internasjonale markeder.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). En lesning av Engasjement og arrangement: Ei utgreiing om konsertarrangørar.
  • Yngvar Kjus; Ragnhild Brøvig-Hanssen; Eirik Askerøi; Mike Hartung; Magnus Wergeland Juell & Sara Karoliussen (2019). Musikkprodusentens rolle.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen; Eystein Sandvik; Julia Witek; Alma Nedrelid & Torkjell Hovland (2019). Å bygge en karriere i musikklivet.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Norsk musikkbransje og eksport.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Facing the global music industry: Norwegian responses to the digitalisation of the music industry.
  • Yngvar Kjus (2019). Is streaming streamlining copyright in music?.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Music streaming and data literacy.
  • Arnt Maasø (2019). How the revenue share model of music streaming services made Spotify’s ‘clickfarms’ scandals, ‘playlist payola’ and Tidal’s streaming scams possible, and how it can be fixed.
  • Arnt Maasø (2019). The gaming and building of trust in music metrics.
  • Arnt Maasø (2019). Streaming platforms and research in the Nordics.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Superstar economy and the digitalised music industry.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Norsk musikk i internasjonale markeder. Frokostseminar, Kulturdepartementet: Musikkeksport.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Norsk musikk og globale selskaper.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Digitalisering som utfordring for kulturindustriene.
  •  (2019). Anja Nylund Hagen om musikkeksport.
  •  (2019). Hva betyr digitaliseringen for norsk musikkeksport?.
  •  (2019). Thomas Hayes har signert med Sony, skal gi ut musikk.
  •  (2019). Slik kan Emir (26) leve av musikken: – Men jeg tenkte aldri «oi shit, her kan vi tjene mer penger».
  •  (2019). Med opphavsrett på studieplanen.
  •  (2019). Hva definerer musikken på 2010-tallet?.
  •  (2019). Taylor Swift og musikklansering på Instagram.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). strømmetjenester. Store Norske Leksikon (Nettutgaven).
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Spotify. Store Norske Leksikon (Nettutgaven).
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Tidal. Store Norske Leksikon (Nettutgaven).
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Napster. Store Norske Leksikon (Nettutgaven).
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Bokomtale: Engasjement og arrangement - ei utgreiing om konsertarrangørar. Musikkmagasinet Ballade.  ISSN 0805-5041.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2019). Musikkbransjen er ikke så digital som vi tror. Dagens næringsliv.  ISSN 0803-9372.  109, s 31- 31
  • Anja Nylund Hagen & Yngvar Kjus (2018). How to make money in music in the digital age?.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2018). Competing with music in national and global markets.
  • Yngvar Kjus (2018). How to make money in music in the digital age?.
  • Yngvar Kjus (2018). Music on demand: Economy and copyright in a digitised cultural sector.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2018). Norwegian music industry as global and digital media industry.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2018). Changing practices in a globalised and digitalised music industry.
  • Arnt Maasø (2018). How streaming scandals are made possible by the revenue model, and how business model innovations could bring back trust and transparency.
  • Yngvar Kjus (2018). Musical negotiations: How singer-songwriters relate to economy and copyright in digital times.
  • Yngvar Kjus (2018). The use of copyright in digital times: A study of how singer-songwriters exercise their rights in evolving music markets.
  • Anja Nylund Hagen (2018). Industry in change: cultural labour in a globalised and digitalised music industry.
  • Yngvar Kjus (2018). Negotiating streaming rights: A study of the contracts and negotiations underlying the music streaming economy.
  • Yngvar Kjus (2017). Dur eller moll for norsk musikk?. Dagens næringsliv.  ISSN 0803-9372.

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Published June 13, 2017 1:52 PM - Last modified Jan. 8, 2020 10:01 AM